corona familiar history
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused significant disruptions to economies and social activities around the globe throughout 2020.  According to this report the most common comorbidities are hypertension (66% of deaths), type 2 diabetes (29.8% of deaths), ischemic heart disease (27.6% of deaths), atrial fibrillation (23.1% of deaths) and chronic renal failure (20.2% of deaths). COVID-19 spreads from person to person mainly through the respiratory route after an infected person coughs, sneezes, sings, talks or breathes. Director: Research Development and Principal Investigator: Molecular Biology and Virology Research Laboratory Department of Medical BioSciences, University of the Western Cape. The S1 subunit forms the head of the spike and has the receptor binding domain (RBD). Some wet markets sell wild or banned species like cobras, wild boars, and raccoon dogs. How Long Does Coronavirus Live On Surfaces?  The virus is of concern to the poultry industry because of the high mortality from infection, its rapid spread, and its effect on production. , Replication – One of the main functions of the complex is to replicate the viral genome. Since the most recent ancestor of the bovine coronavirus and hCoV-O43 was also traced to about 1890, and hCoV-OC43 is now known to have potential to invade and attack the nervous system, could the 1889-1890 pandemic have been the result of the jump of cow coronaviruses to humans? A significant increase in case fatality with increasing age was reported; this means that, as early findings on COVID-19 would suggest, the elderly were harder hit. paused tests of a drug Trump said he had taken", "France bans use of hydroxychloroquine, drug touted by Trump, in coronavirus patients", "FDA Approves First Treatment for COVID-19", "Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study", "Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of covid-19 infection: systematic review and critical appraisal", "Modelling the COVID-19 epidemic and implementation of population-wide interventions in Italy", "The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study", "Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19", "A contribution to the mathematical theory of epidemics", "Exposed: An occupant exposure model for confined spaces to retrofit crowd models during a pandemic", "Association between mobility patterns and COVID-19 transmission in the USA: a mathematical modelling study", "The global macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19: Seven scenarios", "A Bibliometric Analysis of COVID-19 across Science and Social Science Research Landscape", "Navigating the COVID-19 Evidence Landscape", "The challenges of vaccine development against a new virus during a pandemic", "Evolution of the COVID-19 vaccine development landscape", "The vaccine race explained: What you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine", "The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape", "First up for COVID-19: nearly 30 clinical readouts before end of April", "Global coalition to accelerate COVID-19 clinical research in resource-limited settings", "A living systematic review protocol for COVID-19 clinical trial registrations", "UN health chief announces global 'solidarity trial' to jumpstart search for COVID-19 treatment", "Coronavirus (COVI D-19) Update: FDA Issues Emergency Use Authorization for Potential COVID-19 Treatment", "COVID-19 Update: FDA Broadens Emergency Use Authorization for Veklury (remdesivir) to Include All Hospitalized Patients for Treatment of COVID-19", "Gilead's Investigational Antiviral Veklury (Remdesivir) Receives U.S. Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization for the Treatment of Patients With Moderate COVID-19", "FDA EUA Remdesivir Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers", "A small trial finds that hydroxychloroquine is not effective for treating coronavirus", "No evidence of rapid antiviral clearance or clinical benefit with the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection", "Antimalarial drug touted by President Trump is linked to increased risk of death in coronavirus patients, study says", "Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis", "Retraction: "Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis, "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Warns of Newly Discovered Potential Drug Interaction That May Reduce Effectiveness of a COVID-19 Treatment Authorized for Emergency Use", "Recovery trial for Covid-19 treatments: what we know so far", "WHO welcomes preliminary results about dexamethasone use in treating critically ill COVID-19 patients", Corticosteroids for COVID-19: living guidance, 2 September 2020, "Association Between Administration of Systemic Corticosteroids and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: A Meta-analysis", "Corticosteroids in COVID-19 ARDS: Evidence and Hope During the Pandemic", "EMA endorses use of dexamethasone in COVID-19 patients on oxygen or mechanical ventilation", "Hydroxychloroquine does not benefit adults hospitalized with COVID-19", "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Monoclonal Antibody for Treatment of COVID-19", "China approves use of Roche drug in battle against coronavirus complications", "Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab", "COVID-19 – Italy launches an independent trial on tocilizumab", "Tocilizumab in COVID-19 Pneumonia (TOCIVID-19) (TOCIVID-19)", "How doctors can potentially significantly reduce the number of deaths from Covid-19", "Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China", "COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression", "FDA Approves Phase III Clinical Trial of Tocilizumab for COVID-19 Pneumonia", "Preliminary Results of Prophylactic Tocilizumab after Axicabtageneciloleucel (axi-cel; 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Structural factors that prevent African Americans from practicing social distancing include their concentration in crowded substandard housing and in "essential" occupations such as public transit and health care. Older people were much more likely to suffer severe disease and symptoms included fever, cough, muscle pain and sore throat. , The severity of COVID-19 varies. , After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus—Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). , Transcription – The other important function of the complex is to transcribe the viral genome.  Face coverings limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, breathing, and coughing. The genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail.  There is no preponderance in any season in tropical climates. An illustration of a coronavirus.  On 2 July, The WHO's Chief Scientist reported that the average IFR estimate presented at a two-day WHO expert forum was about 0.6%. ", "COVID-19 (coronavirus): Long-term effects", "What are the long-term health risks following COVID-19? As of April 2020, the search for the animal origin of COVID-19 is ongoing. The number of accessory proteins and their function is unique depending on the specific coronavirus. , In August 2020 the CDC issued caution that tuberculosis infections could increase the risk of severe illness or death. The interaction of the coronavirus spike protein with its complementary cell receptor is central in determining the tissue tropism, infectivity, and species range of the released virus.